Cody Call

About Cody Call

Cody Call is a neuroscience Ph.D. student who enjoys hiking, cycling, playing guitar and writing about the brain.

Posts by Cody Call:

From Soup to Vents: Hypotheses for the Origin of Life

In the early 1950s, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey created one of the most well known soup recipes. This soup didn't have chicken and noodles, but instead was an amalgamation of ammonia, methane, and hydrogen gas cooked with bursts of electric shocks and high temperatures. After a week of brewing, what remained was a thick(...)


An Abdominal Window into the Gut’s Nervous System

As neuroscience has advanced rapidly, unraveling many mysteries of neural circuits in the brain and spinal cord, the gut's enteric nervous system has remained somewhat of an enigma. Now, with a window embedded in the abdomen, researchers can periodically monitor the gut's neurons in a living animal over a period of months. Sometimes nicknamed "the(...)


Solving the Scientific Reproducibility Crisis

In an ideal world, reproducibility is a cornerstone of scientific research. The scientific method should provide conclusions that are as close to the truth as possible. In reality, reproducibility of results is a constant worry in scientific research. According to a recent survey by Nature, scientific irreproducibility is at a crisis level. The inability to(...)


How Lithium Treats Bipolar Disorder

Lithium is a first-line treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, which is characterized by mood swings between mania and depression. Although widespread use of lithium to treat mania began around the mid-20th century, we still know relatively little about the compound’s mechanism of action. And we know even less about why lithium fails to treat(...)


Building Brain-Machine Interfaces That Are Here to Stay

In 2012, Jan Scheuermann made headlines when she took a bite of chocolate. While that sounds like a simple feat, in her case, it was extraordinary. Her brain controlled a robotic arm to take that bite — her first one unaided after almost a decade of paralysis in all four limbs. Other history-making successes with(...)


Blocking Signals Between Brain Cells May Boost Brain Repair in MS

Multiple sclerosis afflicts millions but defies most clinical treatments. For reasons we do not clearly understand, the immune system of an individual with MS attacks myelin, the insulating tubing that envelopes neurons and speeds up brain communication. When myelin is degraded in MS, the brain cells that make myelin, called oligodendrocytes, die. Moreover, for some(...)